The well-known quote by writer and philosopher George Santayana, "Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it” certainly holds true in the world of project management.
According to the Project Management Institute’s Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK), lessons learned are the learnings gained from the process of performing the project; and the purpose of documenting these is to share and use knowledge derived from experience to promote the recurrence of desirable outcomes.
Makes perfect sense, doesn’t it? Why then is more emphasis not placed on this valuable step in project management?
According to Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting, “documenting lessons learned is not a nice to have; it’s an imperative, without which a project manager’s (PM) future chances of failure are greatly increased”.
Often lessons learned are only reflected on during close out meetings, by which time people may well have forgotten what happened during the course of the project, or team members may have left. At close out, the team will probably already be thinking about their next project and may not be in the right headspace to put the current project under the microscope.
McManus recommends a lessons learned register which can be included as part of weekly meetings by asking the question, “what did we learn this week” throughout the lifecycle of the project.
“Keep a rolling log of lessons learned, give the team access to it and make sure that it is reviewed and included in the close out documentation and history of project so that, when a similar project is undertaken, others can learn from the previous experiences,” says McManus.
While many programs have a lessons learnt space, you can easily create your own. Be sure to make it accessible and encourage team members to record their experiences and observations. It’s important to involve the entire project team and approach the exercise from the right starting point. It should never be about blaming anyone for things that have gone wrong. Encourage everyone to share their successes and failures openly with the sole objective being to do it better the next time around.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting. | Image created by Freepik.com.
The term “project manager” is a something of a misnomer; project management is as much, if not more, about managing people as it is about projects. Two key aspects of being an effective project manager is the ability to motivate your team and to see, and clearly articulate, the bigger picture. People need to understand why they are doing what they are doing and, in the project management world, it falls within the ambit of the PM’s role to ensure that the team has a clear vision of where they’re headed, and why they are going there, not only how they will get there.
Often an IT PM came into that role because of his or her technical skills, but being a good project manager means also developing “softer” skills that bring out the best in the team.
In their best seller, Extreme Ownership, authors and former Navy SEAL commanders Jocko Willink and Leif Babin share a valuable lesson about leadership: "There are no bad teams, only bad leaders."
During a Facebook Live interview, Babin said he can remember times from his years with the SEALs where he thought, "If I just had a better team, I would do better."
"Wrong," he said of this train of thought. "If I was a better leader, my team would have been better, and that's what leaders have to recognize and step up and make happen."
Top of the list of good project manager leadership qualities is the willingness to be accountable for your team. Own the team, own the project and own the results, both good and bad. This includes understanding that not all team members will respond to the same management style. Appreciating what makes individual team members tick and being able to tap into that, in terms of managing and motivating them, is a powerful management tool.
And it’s not just about managing the team, the PM also has the responsibility to manage “upwards”. The PM is the link between the project team and the executive. This means not being afraid to ask the right questions and, when necessary, deliver “unpopular” news. A good PM understands the strategic objective of the project and communicates it, not only to the team, but to all the stakeholders across the business.
Leadership is also about identifying non-performers and being able to deal with non-performing individuals with the minimum impact on the team. While it’s important not to break the team down or destroy morale, PMs must be brave enough to take action and remove a team member when necessary.
It’s important to know your own strengths, and weaknesses, as a leader so that you can build on the former and mitigate the latter. If you’re a people’s person and you can build people up, great. If not, you may need some help in that department and sometimes enlisting the help of a project administrator, who can take care of the softer issues, may be the answer.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
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The legal principle “ignorantia legis neminem excusat” (Latin for ignorance of law excuses no one) has never been more apt than it is today. In some sectors – like financial services – companies have had to take entire teams on board to navigate the quagmire of the ever changing legislative landscape.
IT project managers (PMs) will know better than anyone the value and power of data and the importance of securing and using the data appropriately. PMs carry a double burden, ensuring that their project stays both within the legal frameworks of the industry that the business operates and the company’s own IT security plan.
Risk management is one of the ten knowledge areas in the Project Management Institute's PMBOK in which a project manager must be competent and effective risk management is key to any project’s success. PMs are expected to keep up to date with the legislative landscape to ensure that the organization does not flout any laws in pursuit of the project in hand. This includes legislation that is on the horizon and which may be enacted by the time, or shortly after, the project goes live.
Legislation like the Protection of Personal Information (PoPI) and anti-corruption legislation, to name but two examples, need careful analysis and consideration to ensure that all aspects of the projects – both in terms of the execution and outcome of the project – are within the law.
The PM is also responsible for keeping the project team up to date on legislation that impacts on the project every step of the way. This means providing regular feedback and information sessions to the project team on relevant legislative requirements as the project unfolds.
A useful resource for any PM is ongoing dialogue with the internal compliance team, which is ideally equipped to provide guidance on legislation affecting the business.
Sometimes even the most diligently reviewed projects can transgress the rules and then it is important that the PM has protected himself by conducting due diligence in terms of securing information and having communicated all the relevant information regarding legislation requirements and policies to the project team.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
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Hands up if you’ve ever checked emails while watching TV; typed up some notes for your next meeting while listening to a presentation; or popped into social media while on a telephone conversation. Most of us resort to multi-tasking because despite having a multitude of technological aids that are supposed to make our lives easier we’ve never been busier.
The very technology that has made our lives so much easier (who would argue against the joy of internet banking, versus bank queues) has also enslaved us. Just look around the next time you are in a restaurant...it’s not uncommon to see a group of diners (especially if there are teenagers in their midst) each engrossed in their own mobile phone.
Research conducted at Stanford University found that multitasking is less productive than doing a single thing at a time. Researchers found that people who are regularly bombarded with several streams of electronic information do not pay attention, control their memory or switch from one job to another as well as those who prefer to complete one task at a time.
According to Guy Winch, PhD, author of Emotional First Aid: Practical Strategies for Treating Failure, Rejection, Guilt and Other Everyday Psychological Injuries, multitasking is really task-switching.”
“When it comes to attention and productivity, our brains have a finite amount,” he says.
“It’s like a pie chart, and whatever we’re working on is going to take up the majority of that pie. There’s not a lot left over for other things, with the exception of automatic behaviors like walking or chewing gum.” Moving back and forth between several tasks actually wastes productivity, he says, because your attention is expended on the act of switching gears—plus, you never get fully “in the zone” for either activity.
The moral of the story? Do one thing at a time, you’ll get more done. And you’ll do it better.
According to Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting, this advice is never more valid than in the world of project management.
“Project managers are inherently expected to have many balls in the air at any given time. Cultivating the art of being mindful; actually being fully present and not distracted, is a valuable skill.”
This view supports the Theory of Constraint proposed by Eli Goldratt is the Theory of Constraints and Critical Chain. According to Goldratt, overload in a situation that relies on constrained resources to get something done leads to “bad multitasking”, which in turn leads to inefficiencies and impacts on performance.
“The solution is simple – albeit not always easy to implement: focus on the task at hand before moving on to the next one and ensure that the workflow within your team is monitored so that team members are not overloaded and left with no option but to multitask,” says McManus.
When constructing your schedule, ensure that resources are not allocated 100% of their day to tasks, leave time for administration and time outs, which are vital for mental health. People’s availability is simply not the default eight hours a day as enforced by most planning tools and changing this to reflect a more realistic allocation, like six hours a day, will improve planning accuracy.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
In the past, project managers (PMs) were first and foremost, planners and executors; individuals who excelled in coming up with agreed deliverables, according to an approved time line. But that is changing and changing fast. Tomorrow’s PMs will be strategic warriors, making a significant contribution where it matters most: executing the business strategy.
Traditionally, projects are almost always owned by executives much higher up the corporate food chain and the PM is quite simply expected to, as the saying goes, do or die. Sadly, many a “vanity project” has gobbled resources only to fail because it did not further the business strategy.
PMs are increasingly expected to display a strong business sense, enabling them to execute the business strategy of the project rather than just deliver a series of milestones.
Gartner® Inc. in their “Predicts 2017: PPM Leaders” report, published in December 2016, says the world's leading research and advisory company, predicts that by 2021, “enterprises that commit dedicated organisational resources to ensuring that strategy is successfully executed will be 80% more likely to be industry leaders”.
In essence, PMs now need to become “strategy activists”, familiarizing themselves with strategic planning methods to ensure that they never lose focus of the business outcomes of the project. In addition to honing new skills, this calls for the courage to ask the right questions every step of the way, starting with “why are we doing this…what is the strategic outcome that this project supports?”
And, if you are not yet convinced, consider this: according to Gartner, “by 2020, Project Management Offices (PMOs) with an activist orientation will displace most passive PMOs”.
Ensuring that PMOs remain relevant and optimally effective within an organisation also requires that careful thought be given to how the function is structured. Veteran PM, Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting, supports the appointment of a chief project officer at executive level, with the PMO operating from that level down.
McManus says that the PMO is unequivocally a strategic function and it should not sit within IT (or even finance) where it often does.
“To give the function the necessary ‘weight’ to make the required contribution to the business’ strategy, the PMO should be run by an executive that reports directly to the CEO or chief risk officer,” he says.
Once PMs tap into the strategic importance of project management, the whole dynamic changes. The PM evolves from being a policeman of deliverables and deadlines to a strategic enabler. This includes eliminating barriers to ensure quick and effective delivery and providing constant feedback on whether the project is delivering on the strategic drivers.
© Tony McManus PMP®, MD of McManus Consulting
Thanks to technology, employees can now choose when and where they want to work. A 2016 report by US software giant, Citrix said that already by this year some 50% of businesses would have a mobile working policy, and by 2020, 70% of people will work away from the office as often as they worked at a desk.
For those employees that choose to go into the office, hot desking has becoming the norm. Yes, there is no doubt that working habits have changed and, with that, so must the way that we plan and use office space. Certainly the big corner office with a view is fast becoming a thing of the past and these days even senior executives can be found hot desking in open plan workspaces.
A mobile workforce has several advantages for businesses, most of which outweigh the traditional convenience of being able to pop down the passage and discuss a problem with a colleague, or catch up on office gossip around the water cooler.
First and foremost, today’s employees want a better work life balance. That doesn’t mean they necessarily want to work less, but that they want to work smarter. Consider the benefit for a working mother being able to spend the afternoon doing homework with her children and then settle back down to work after she’s tucked them in? Simply put, the theory is that the happier your employees are, the more productive they will be; and, allowing them freedom of choice and flexibility makes them happier.
Then there are also the cost benefits. Office space is becoming increasingly expensive and a well-planned mobile workforce needs fewer desks, with the commensurate saving in rentals, maintenance and running costs.
But that doesn’t mean that offices will disappear altogether, rather that office spaces will increasingly be transformed into more productive and creative, albeit smaller, spaces. Upping the ante on creativity means providing areas that stimulate creative thinking and boost employee enjoyment of their work space when they do choose to come into the office.
A BBC article that looks at the evolution of the traditional office, includes the example of Lego, which “has taken hot-desking to the next level at its London and Singapore offices, introducing a system called activity-based working, which means that no-one has a fixed desk any more”.
At Lego, space is divided into flexible work zones with no fixed seating and no offices for managers. Employees who leave their workspace for more than one-and-a-half hours need to take all their stuff with them.
According to a senior director at Lego, the changes have worked well: 88% of staff said they “liked the choice of where to work. They get a choice of different settings to suit their activity or mood, including a quiet library, a buzzing social area with background music, comfy chairs in cosy corners or big banks of desks to share with team-mates”.
So, as more and more companies get to grips with the fact that not everyone needs to be in the office all the time, expect the space around you to start changing...for the better.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
Finding the right skills is one of the biggest challenges facing businesses today and no less so in South Africa where there is a dearth of skills across many disciplines, including project management.
Let’s face it, in times of corporate and economic stress, staff are essentially a liability beyond and between projects. But, on the other hand, if companies are to plan and execute projects effectively, they need to have the rights skills on hand. Smart companies also know that the right people can give the company a significant competitive advantage.
Enter the “blended” workforce comprising permanent employees supported by contractors, temps and consultants. Blended workforces are becoming more and more prevalent around the globe as companies cotton on to the benefits of a flexible workforce that mirrors the company’s needs at that specific time. Especially when considered against the backdrop of the increasing need for cost reduction, and increased productivity, in tough economic times.
“Using contractors and consultants to supplement the company’s permanent workforce makes good business sense. It boosts productivity in that you have the skills when you need them and avoids the heartache of having to let people go when those skills are no longer needed. Having to shed jobs not only breaks hearts, it destroys company morale and can affect productivity in the long run. But the flexible worker arrives with the mindset that when the project ends he will move on to the next project. Knowing from the outset that he is here to give his best only while the project lasts before moving on to the next adventure can also boost productivity,” says Tony McManus, CEO of McManus Consulting.
But a blended workforce comes with challenges too. According to Matthew Franceschini, CEO of Entity Solutions, a contractor management agency, writing in Project Manager, one of the key requirements for blended workforce success is “to take an integrated, holistic approach, tapping into permanent and contingent talent in a way that ensures a seamless pathway for the project and the organisation. There must be flexibility of engagement while ensuring governance and visibility of spend”.
“The blended workforce must also meet the driving need of cost reduction, or at a minimum, cost containment. Ideally you want to create a dynamic of cooperation between permanent and contingent workers, one that leads to greater productivity. Your workforce then should be managed in a way that ensures logistical ease when connecting people to projects.”
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
Benefit realisation management (BRM) is not just the newest business catchphrase, it is also a very effective methodology for correctly identifying project benefits, and comes into its own particularly when big budgets are in play.
Globally, business executives are embracing BRM to enable businesses to properly identify, track and deliver measurable value from the business case of a project through its execution and delivery phases.
In the project management arena, BRM takes place at programme or portfolio, not project level, because not all projects warrant it. But, when applicable, BRM is a phenomenal tool that tracks benefits through and beyond the project life cycle. And the latter is significant because it is important for businesses to keep monitoring that the project is delivering value after its completion.
Conceptually, every benefit has an enabler and, at project initiation, BRM verifies that all enablers have been identified and provided for. During execution, BRM monitors progress of the enablers, ensuring that they are correctly tested and handed off. And, once the project is closed, BRM transitions to operations.
Unfortunately, the process of selecting, justifying and prioritising projects is often influenced by subjective factors like personalities (he who shouts loudest, or holds most power, wins) and many projects quite simply don’t deliver the return on investment (ROI) promised at the outset, despite having been delivered on time and within budget.
BRM is a powerful tool in the portfolio manager’s arsenal, adding significant value when it comes to project selection and prioritisation; and allows the business case to be thoroughly interrogated and tested, at the start and every step along the way.
When one considers that, on average, large IT projects run 45% over budget and 7% over time, while delivering 56% less value than predicted*, it’s clear that the time has come to find ways to identify and unlock benefits that tie in with the business strategy.
Veteran Project Manager, Tony McManus, CEO of McManus Consulting, says that South African companies have generally been slow to take up BRM, but this could be risky because basing a project on an untested business case is too subjective.
“BRM facilitates an objective structured process that interrogates benefits that are sometimes vague, speculative and unachievable. And it’s not just portfolio managers that will find BRM invaluable. Project owners, who have to measure the benefits beyond the project, into the operational cycle will find value in BRM too,” says McManus. His company now has a BRM consulting capability for clients that recognise the considerable value in this discipline.
*That’s according to a McKinsey survey of 5,400 large IT projects.
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.
Gamification is essentially about using the typical elements of game playing – like point scoring, rewards and competition with others – to incentivise staff (or, in the marketing space, to encourage engagement with a product or service.) Simply put: it takes the (often addictive) elements of video games into the office space; and suddenly work starts to feel more like a game – with often remarkable boosts in productivity!
Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting, believes that gamification can play a positive role in the project management space. A successful gamification programme can increase productivity and quality of output; and boost morale and staff retention – all of which often pose challenges for project managers. By making work more exciting and fun, gamification can also help with that universal HR headache of how to improve staff engagement. Add into the mix the ability to encourage people to enter their project reports, task updates and so on and the case for gamification in project management is strong.
In 2012 – concerned by inaccuracy from its disengaged workforce – Lawley Insurance introduced gamification. During a two-week challenge, employees earned points for updating their files, logging their phone calls, and scoping out prospects and, according to Concur.com, “The contest was responsible for generating the same amount of salesforce activities in two weeks as had been created in the prior 7 ½ months.”
As more and more businesses have cottoned on to the benefits of gamification the industry has exploded; virtually overnight, gamification applications and programs have turned into a $100 million industry, which is expected to grow to $2.8 billion by 2016.
The first step in using gamification in the project management world would be choosing Gamified Project Management Software (like RedCritter Tracker, a powerful Agile project management service).
Capterra – specialists in selecting the right software for the job – has the following advice for introducing gamification:
© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting