Government needs to create a culture of effective project management

 

One doesn’t need to wade too deeply into the quagmire of politics to acknowledge that South Africa is in dire need of infrastructure development (and maintenance) to ensure its future growth – yet billions of Rands are being spent on projects that are seldom, if ever, delivered on time, within budget and able to do that what they set out to do.

While “Fourth Industrial Revolution” are the government buzzwords of the year, Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting, contends that there are far more pressing projects that government should be focused on. These mainly relate to infrastructure without which 4IR, as the Fourth Industrial Revolution is known, remains a pipe dream. Take the example of Eskom: if the power utility isn’t brought back on track, how will 4IR even get off the ground? How will the Internet of Things, robotics, virtual reality and other technologies and trends that characterize the 4IR work without power? Quite simply, they won’t.

Thus, it’s time to go back to basics; instilling a deep culture of effective project management into the public sector could be a game changer.

Stakeholder interference (often driven by political expediency) can disempower project managers and derail projects. McManus dreams of a National Project Management Office (NPMO), providing strategic oversight for all the infrastructure projects underway in the country. That’s not to say that control of the projects should be centralized but rather than all projects should be subjected to the same stringent project management rules and controls. A centralized NPMO – starting at national level and branching out into the provinces – would provide government with an effective tool for aligning project activity with its strategic interests and objectives.

Integrated Project Management Across Government Operations*, a paper presented at the PMI® Global Congress 2010, should be mandatory reading for all government departments (and would make an ideal starting point for the NPMO of McManus’ dreams). The authors identify project management as a “lever of change”, able to address the unique challenges faced by projects in the public sector. “Projects can cut through the morass of politics and short-sightedness by delivering on clear objectives and bringing change through multiple channels:

  • A proving ground for new strategies. When government organizations innovate or take a new path in solving a problem, project management enables an efficient, concise environment for change.
  • Beyond the incremental. Highly bureaucratic institutions usually change slowly and incrementally. Projects offer a way to make quantum leaps in understanding and approaches to problem solving.
  • Better stakeholder management. Cross-boundary projects require innovative ways to address stakeholder needs. A project environment enables systematic stakeholder management.”

McManus believes that perhaps the single most important contribution that project management tools can make in the public sector is to enable government to embrace two of the key features that determine project success in the private sector: flexibility and innovation.

* Jaques, T. W. & Weinstein, J. (2010). Integrating project management across government operations. Paper presented at PMI® Global Congress 2010—North America, Washington, DC. Newtown Square, PA: Project Management Institute

 © Tony McManus, McManus Consulting

Project managers must also be cybercrime warriors

Hacking and cybercrime are increasing at an alarming rate and experts agree that it’s not going to get better anytime soon. The cost of cybercrime shot up 93%, from $1.4 billion in 2017, to $2.7 billion in 2018. That’s according to the FBI’s annual Internet Crime Report.

IT project managers (PMs) wear many hats, none more important than that of cybercrime warrior. There are so many points at which projects can be vulnerable to cybercrime, from the most basic password cracking to more sophisticated network breaches; and the PM needs to “own” this risk, rather than assuming that it will be covered by the organisation’s general IT security umbrella.

“From the outset, PMs need to work closely with the organisation’s IT security specialists to identity the potential points of exploitation that the project might be exposed to and what security concerns might be unearthed; and then develop mitigating strategies,” says Tony McManus, CEO of McManus Consulting.

McManus says that effective cyber security for projects should start with the basics, including the often-overlooked elementary security building block of effective password protection. Using a reputable password generator like LastPass, rather than the same password for everything, is essential. Consideration should also be giving to limiting access to data to only those that need it, and encrypting files and communications.

The PM is also responsible for integrating cyber security into the culture of the team, making sure that every member of the team is up to speed on the cyber risks facing the project, and fully on board when it comes to protecting against breaches.

A report published earlier this year reveals a rather concerning “casual approach to workplace communications, and digital habits in general”; with 27% of employees admitting that they do not know their employers’ IT guidelines; one in four admitting to using their personal email to conduct business; and one in three admitting to using their personal devices for work.

The cautious PM will consider not only what information is being shared between the team but also how it is being shared.

McManus says that PMs must be both proactive and reactive when it comes to cyber risks and that lessons learned on each project must form part of reactive cyber risk assessment, creating a valuable “data bank” for future projects.

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting. | Image created by Freepik.com.

Humans and AI – the perfect partnership in project management

Artificial Intelligence (AI) – which emphasises the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like human beings – will have a significant impact on the project management (PM) world. Forward thinking organisations will jump at the opportunity to maximise project success by making use of the distinctly different, and unique, characteristics that man and machines bring to the table.

Tony McManus, CEO of McManus Consulting, says that, increasingly, AI will gather, interpret and extrapolate project data, freeing up the project manager to focus on tasks that require more emotional intelligence (something that AI cannot currently replicate). But McManus emphasises that, while logic reigns supreme with computers, one can never do away with the caring, subjective reasoning that human beings bring to the table. Thus, both man and machine have a role to play in the PM world of the future.

This is confirmed by research and advisory company, Gartner, who say that 80% of today’s project management tasks will be eliminated by 2030 as AI takes over. “AI will improve the outcomes of these tasks, including the ability to analyse data faster than humans and using those results to improve overall performance. As these standard tasks start to get replaced, Program and Portfolio Management (PPM) leaders will look to staff their teams with those who can manage the demands of AI and smart machines as new stakeholders.”

One of the areas in project management that AI can have a major impact on is risk management. The traditional risk register is compiled by human beings, with all the advantages and disadvantages of the inherent subjectivity. Imagine how much more effective a smart machine could be using the hard data of risk and issue logs to predict project success or failures; and how much time, money and resources could be saved by using machines for this.

Project estimation is another area where machines can make a significant impact. Again, by crunching a vast amount of hard data quickly and accurately, a machine could make a precise estimate of the project, which could enable the PM to better calculate the investment needed for the project.

In the key area of progress updates, McManus expects to see the use of inference engines and “chatbots” to glean progress updates from team members, obviating the need for timesheets, which are a key resistance point for most organisations. Inference “engines” that deduce task completion are already being encountered.

Gartner predicts that, “over time, AI will have a significant and very positive impact on PPM leaders and the PPM technologies they use, as both strive to remain effective and relevant in the digital age. Therefore, Program Management Office transformation must include an evolving strategy that incorporates and takes full advantage of the benefits of AI, as AI begins to take root in the PPM software market”.

Tomorrow’s project managers will manage teams comprising both human beings and smart machines, each contributing their unique talents to the project’s outcome. While machines will always fare better when it comes to repetitive tasks, human beings have an advantage when it comes to complex tasks that require emotional intelligence for effective execution.

Smart PMs will embrace the technology and harness AI to make their projects more successful, while celebrating the freedom it gives team members to become more creative and productive in areas that machines cannot tap into. Yet…

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.  | Image created by Freepik.com.

70% of IT projects fail – make sure yours isn’t one of them!

The statistics relating to IT project failure are scary. Consider this: up to 70% of projects fail; and 17% of IT projects go so badly that they threaten the very existence of the company. The latter is according to research conducted by McKinsey & Company in collaboration with the University of Oxford. They also found that, on average, large IT projects run 45% over budget and 7% over time, while delivering 56% less value than predicted.

According to veteran project manager, Tony McManus, the most common reasons for project failure are quite simple and often start with projects kicking off without a professional project manager at the helm. Simply put: project managers (PMs) are trained to look for certain things as set out in the 10 knowledge areas outlined by PMBOK®*; which line managers (who are often tasked with running projects) are not familiar with.

Poorly defined project scope is another fundamental problem. Organisations often undertake a project without getting their heads around the scope. McManus emphasises the importance of understanding and “unpacking” the project scope properly at the outset.

Often stakeholders, excited about the business case and the anticipated return on investment, are raring to go and do not want to “waste” time planning. They know what they want and they (think) they know what must be done.

At this point, an experienced PM will carefully unpack the activities needed to deliver the business case. This takes time but often the company just wants to get going and skimps on the planning phase. Yet the old adage, measure thrice, cut once is never more relevant than when it comes to project planning.

In the planning phase, the PM will conduct a project definition workshop before drilling down with the individuals involved to find out exactly what’s needed to deliver. Only once the PM has done this can the project plan, schedule and cost be accurately defined.

McManus’ favourite analogy for successful project management is building a house. “If you start building a two bedroom house, with one bathroom, a kitchen, lounge and dining room but decide halfway through that you need a third bedroom and a second bathroom the cost of reworking the building is huge – not to mention the wasted time and resources.”

Similarly, in project management, shifting the goalposts midway through (often because the scope was not properly defined at the outset) is a waste of time, effort and money.

But, while McManus is a fierce proponent of planning, he does offer a caveat: avoid analysis paralysis at all costs.

“Don’t get stuck in an endless planning cycle by become too granular. An appropriate level of planning is important, but so is progress.

“Understanding the project requirements and making sure that everyone involved is on the same page, right from the start, will save you time and money and greatly enhance your project’s chances of success; not only in terms of delivering on time and in budget but, most significantly, delivering the anticipated value,” says McManus.

*   The Project Management Body of Knowledge compiled by the Project Management Institute in the US, using the experience gleaned from hundreds of project managers in the international PM community.

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.  |  Image created by Freepik.com.

Effective risk management is the difference between disaster and disruption

Risk – both in terms of identification and management – remains one of the biggest challenges facing corporate South Africa in 2011; not least of all because the King 3 report on governance positions risk as a cornerstone of corporate governance and holds the board of directors directly accountable.

Risk means different things to different businesses. For some, potential risks border on the bizarre: if you’re building a seaside nuclear plant it could mean a tsunami breaching a sea wall considered impenetrable; and, if you operate an airline, it could mean a volcano in a far off land spewing ash into the air, which grounds your airplanes.

While risk is inherently unpredictable, if you have an IT project underway there are at two key risks – with a potentially catastrophic impact – that are easily identified and relatively easily managed: key personnel and data risks. Imagine if something happened to the individual in whose head the project’s code resides and there is no copy of the code? Or if the main server was stolen, or the building burnt down, and there was no back up?

A good project manager is part risk identifier/part risk manager and effective risk management calls for diligence and discipline.

Managing key personnel risk is integral to an IT project’s success and a few simple precautions can make sure that the project stays on track if fate trips up one of the key players.

Dissemination of knowledge should take place from day one and continue throughout the project. Technical people are notoriously protective of their turf, wielding their power through acronyms and ‘technospeak’; and, let’s face it, computer ‘geeks’ generally prefer to interact with their keyboards rather than their colleagues. One of the project manager’s most important roles is to get the information out of the heads of the various role players and into a format where it is easily accessible to all. It is critical that the project’s design is thoroughly documented from start to finish.

It is also important that the project’s code is checked into a computer code repository like Microsoft’s Visual SourceSafe at the end of each and every work day. It is the responsibility of the project manager to ensure that the codes are checked in nightly before shut down and – with every single procedure thoroughly documented – disciplinary action must ensue if procedures are not followed.

Key to the management of data risk is a well documented disaster recovery strategy. Simple, but effective ‘rules’ – like nightly backups to a tape device, with the tapes stored off site – can mean the difference between disruption and disaster. If budget allows the back up to be done electronically, it should be to a site that is situated on different Telkom and Eskom grids.

There may be little that the PM can do to protect key personnel and data from the fickle finger of fate, but a proactive PM, who takes an effective approach to risk, can ensure that the entire project is not derailed when something goes wrong and, sooner or later, it will.

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.

Making meetings work for you

Meetings are the bane of many (most) people’s work existence and 59% of office workers say that wasteful meetings interfere with their productivity. This is no less true in the project management world where meetings are a vital part of the project’s path to completion. But is every meeting necessary and what is the price you pay for time wasters?

More than 17 million meetings are held every day in workplaces in the United States alone, and loss estimates due to excessive meetings could be as high as $3.7 billion annual. A study in the UK showed that the average office worker spends around 16 hours in meetings each week. That’s over 800 hours a year.

Of course there is value in a group of like-minded people around a table providing vibrant input but all too often meetings turn out to be a protracted waste of time, with attendees checking their email or surfing the internet while someone drones on in the background. There is no doubt that face to face interaction often trumps email communication but it’s all about striking the right balance.

Here are some simple tips for making your meetings more productive:

  1. Consider whether the meeting is really necessary – often there is a better and more effective way of achieving a particular outcome.
  2. Create an agenda with specific time allotted for each topic and appoint a time keeper to ensure that the discussion stays on track.
  3. Always start (and finish) on time; and keep your meetings short and sharp – remember human beings have an attention span of less than 30 minutes.
  4. Restrict the number of attendees – according to the Rule of 7, every attendee over seven reduces the likelihood of making a good, quick, executable decision by 10%. Once you hit 16 or 17, your decision effectiveness is close to zero.
  5. Clarify the purpose of every meeting and each attendee’s role in it and advise them accordingly prior to the meeting.
  6. Keep meetings for solving problems and coming up with new ideas. Use electronic tools to keep the team updated on project status instead of making them sit through status reports.
  7. Ask attendees to leave their cellphones and iPads in a basket at the door – productivity drops if half the attendees are doing other things online during the meeting.
  8. Wrap up every meeting with a clear plan of what needs to be done as a result of decisions taken and assign actions to the appropriate owners.
  9. Richard Branson, Virgin founder, holds discussions in innovative spaces – anyone can leave their desks behind and head outdoors, because a “change of scenery and a bit of fun does wonders for getting people thinking differently and loosening up!”
  10. Christopher Frank, an author and vice president at American Express, suggests a Twitter-like hack – start your meeting by asking each person to articulate in five words or less the problem to be solved.

Whichever approach you favour, it’s worth spending some time thinking about how to maximise productivity in project meetings and whether it’s worth cutting down on non-essential meetings. You’ll not only have a more productive team but they are bound to be happier too!

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.  |  Image created by Freepik.com

Effective change management is key to any project’s success

Project management is inherently about change; and human beings are inherently resistant to change. It makes sense then that a competent change manager should be an integral member of any project management team. That’s according to Tony McManus, MD of McManus Consulting.

Unfortunately, the role of a well-considered and strategic change management plan is often underestimated. This often results in the change management aspect of projects getting farmed out to the human resources or public relations departments. But that, with respect, is a recipe for disaster.

Effective change management is not just about getting the changes implemented as smoothly as possible, but also about ensuring that the intended benefits are realised in the short- and long-term; and this requires buy in from all stakeholders.

For maximum efficacy, the change management stream would run parallel to the project, with the change manager working closely at with the project manager and reporting to the project sponsor.

Very often the resistance to change is based on fear of the unknown and an important role of change management is to allay those fears. The change manager (commonly an industrial psychology major) would start by identifying all stakeholders and conducting a change readiness assessment. Once stakeholders have been mapped, a change management strategy and plan can then be developed.

The change manager will also be able to identify resisters and adopters; and project champions.

When it comes to change, stakeholders general fall into three categories: the early adopters; the neutrals; and the resisters.

The early adopters need little persuasion; they are generally eager for change and need only to be informed of what’s coming and how they can implement it. The neutrals – arguably the majority in any given group – are mostly open to persuasion (providing they can be convinced of the benefits). The resisters are the most difficult group to deal with and can either actively or passively endanger the project if not, at least, managed properly.

An effective way of changing perceptions is setting up a pilot group and spending time actually showing the group the advantages of the new system. Often just providing clarity can be a game changer.

A strong change manager is an invaluable resource for the project manager and, according to McManus, change management should never be regarded as an optional extra, or “nice to have”, but rather as a key component of any project.

© Tony McManus, McManus Consulting.  |  Image created by Freepik.com.

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